Atoms are the basic units of matter and also make up everything we see around us. The word “atom” comes from a Greek term meaning indivisible, as it was once thought that these smallest things couldn’t be divided into smaller pieces; however now we know they’re composed of three particles: Protons (sometimes referred to as positive charges), Neutrons (these have no electric charge but act similarly to weights for an atom)and Electrons which orbit their respective atoms at different speeds giving them individual properties such like conductivity, etc.

Much of what we know about the cosmos comes from an event that occurred 13.7 billion years ago – The Big Bang! As this explosion happened, quarks and electrons formed together into protons which then combined with neutrons to create nuclei for our first atoms ever seen in all their ancient glory on Earth’s surface at CERN right now as they watch over us still today.

In 380,000 years the universe cooled enough to slow down electron speed and allow nuclei to capture them. The first atoms were primarily hydrogen which still exists in abundance today according to Jefferson Lab at a lab outside of Richmond Virginia. Gravity caused gas clouds to coalesce into stars where heavy elements like helium could be created by nuclear fusion reactions within these hot stellar cores sending some out into space when they explode as supernovas.

Atomic particles

Protons and neutrons are heavier than electrons, which reside in the nucleus at the center of an atom. Electrons themselves have a cloud around them called “the electronica” with a radius 10 thousand times greater than that of Nuclease.

The size of an atom is determined by its number of protons and neutrons. While there can be variations in these properties, they always fall into one or more categories based on their masses; for example, carbon atoms have six electrons with varying levels (or energies) that determine how much positive charge will cling to them–this characteristic affects chemical reactivity but not element classification because different isotopes exist even though all containing 14 particles.


The discovery of the atomic nucleus led to a new understanding of physics, with Rutherford being awarded his just desserts for uncovering this fundamental building block. He theorized that there are two types – positive and negative–and they have different charges which cause them to behave differently inside an atom’s target zone (the innermost region) where particles live/exist so long as it is not too close or far away depending on what kind it may be at any given time!

This article talks about how after discovering both kids back when he was still rather young (1911), Ernest had come up with such interesting discoveries like naming one proton due to its positivity while noting another neutrino existed outside our Solar System but even closer than stars themselves; all thanks.

The protons and neutrons are approximately the same size but have different charges which cause them to repel one another slightly less than they would if both were charged with positive or negative electricity respectively.

The strong force is what holds the nucleus together, one of nature’s four basic forces. This electrical attraction between protons and neutrons overcomes their repulsive electromagnetic force so they’re able to stay near each other according to electric rules – but some atomic nuclei are unstable because their binding strength varies depending on size for different atoms within that particular type or class (such as carbon-14 decaying into nitrogen-14). These types will then decay again after an amount of time has passed dependent upon how much energy was put into creating them; this can happen naturally through radioactive emitters like uranium ore turning.


Rutherford discovered that protons were positively charged particles found within atomic nuclei. These tiny, Physics-savvy guys makeup about 99% of an atom’s mass and can be identified by looking for them in experiments with cathode-ray tubes conducted between 1911 – 1919.

The number of protons in an atom is what determines its element. Carbon atoms, for example, have six and hydrogen has one proton because they’re so different from each other; oxygen’s eight while chlorine only counts at three due to their similar properties when it comes to chemical behavior with other elements like metals or compounds such as bleach which makes them reactive but not much else affect either type dubbed Chlor-alkali syntaxis (or CLI).

Quarks are fundamental particles that determine nature’s building blocks, and they come in six different flavors. One type of quark — called “up” or “+2/3e”— has a charge equal to its mass; this means it normally resides at the top center position on an atom’s energy level diagram (E). All other five types can find homes anywhere along either side of E simply by dividing their charges equally amongst them: new particle combinations will result with three down-type Dibond’s between two strange.


One electron is about 1/800 the mass of a proton or neutron. The electrons at Jefferson Lab weigh in at 0.054% as heavy, meaning they’re only 544 times lighter than their neighboring particles.

The Science History Institute credits British physicist Joseph John Thomson with discovering the electron in 1897. He originally called them “corpuscles,” but later realized that they had a negative charge and were attracted to positively charged protons like magnets, according to Erwin Schrödinger’s model which was first put forth around the 1920s. Today this quantum physics idea is known as ‘the’ electronic cloud or more specifically- Schrodinger’s electron wavefunctions (forwards) theory; other terms used today might include: 1) orbitals; 2 ) Bohr models of atom structure/ Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy aka NMR 3.


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